|City | History|
History of origination of our city goes back to that distant past, where the Middle Volga Region was a little lived-in area. Continuous raids of nomads ravaged small settlements, and covered south borders of strengthening Moscow state under the constant threat. It was then that it had been decided to built here a continuous boundary with a fortress city. Simbirsk became such a fortress.
It was founded in 1648 by okolnichiy (one of the highest boyar ranks) Bogdan Matveevich Khitrovo and Clerk Grigory Kunakov on the high right bank of the Volga River according to the direction of tsar Alexei Mikhailovich "…for protection against Nogai people and for building of new cities and defense fortresses from the Barysh River to the Volga River…". This place from times immemorial is called by people "Venets". From here one could see for many kilometers up- and down-stream of the great river.
In Venets was built a log Kremlin, which was a wood fortress. There settled Simbirsk war governor with his retinue, church clergy and riflemen.
The city was a witness of S. Rasin campaigns. In Simbirsk was determined the result of the Peasant's War under the leadership of Stepan Rasin. Simbirsk fortress withstood a siege of troops and Rasin had to go away down the Volga River. The name of E. Pugachev is also connected with Simbirsk, he was the leader of the Peasant's Was in 1773-1774.
Simbirsk has always been considered "a noble among the Volga cities", here came sovereigns, it was the center of creative and social-culture life. Here lived and worked coryphaei of Russian culture: literary man and historian N.M. Karamzin, writer I.A. Goncharov, poets D.D. Minaev and N.M. Yazykov, publicist writer V.V. Rozanov.
The best and the richest part of the city was situated on Venets, where were situated temples, district administrative organizations, educational institutions, private residences, public gardens and avenues. Not far from this place was situated busy trade part of the city with a center in gostniny dvor (row of trade stalls). In the city outskirts lived mainly poor people.
In 1780 Simbirsk was established as a city, ruled by governor. Having acquired new status, Simbirsk received from the hands of Ekaterina II new City Emblem, which represented itself "a white column with gold crown against blue background". After 16 years (in 1796) the city became a center of the region with 10 districts. At the beginning of the 19th century in the city was opened a theater, a hospital, a gymnasium, and sometime later - a library, and a monument to N.M. Karamzin. In these years were built Troitsky and Nikolaevsky temples.
In 1898 in Simbirsk was built a railway, in 1913 was built an electric power station, and in October 1916 was set in operation a large railway bridge across the Volga River. In this time in the city were opened the first movie theaters "Express" and "Empire", was built a house for Peasant and Noble Land banks.
In the 50s-60s in the region were created such industrial enterprises as the plant of heavy and unique machines, mechanical plant, Dimitrovgrad scientific research institute of nuclear reactors, arranged an automobile motion on the railway bridge across the Volga River, was opened an airport in Ulyanovsk.
In Soviet time attitude to Ulyanovsk was special: here was born and lived the earliest 17 years of life Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov-Lenin. At the end of 60-s in connection with preparation to celebration of 100-years anniversary of V.I. Lenin birthday were built architectural constructions, which determines the appearance of Ulyanovsk until now: the Lenin Memorial - is a monument, museum and culture center, the building of pedagogical institute (university), new educational building of the secondary school #1, high-rise building of the hotel "Venets", the Palace of culture of trade union (now CNTI), the hotel "Sovetskaya", the Center of pioneers and pupils, the children's regional library, the central store and new building of Drama Theater. In70-s - 80-s in the region were established new industrial enterprises: Dimitrovgrad auto-aggregate plant, aviation-industrial complex (now "Aviastar") and the airport "Vostochny", Ulyanovsk center of microelectronics (now CJSC "Midaus"), confectionary "Volzhanka".
Among the outstanding people of the region are - scientist A.A. Liubischev, actor V.N. Andreev-Burlak, artist A.A. Plastov, archdeacon K.V. Rozov, enlightener I.Y. Yakovlev, motherland defenders: general P.N. Ivashev (associate of Suvorov), the hero of the Patriotic war of 1812 and poet D.V. Davydov, twice hero of the USSR, pilot I.S. Polbin, legendary A.M. Matrosov.
Today Ulyanovsk is an important scientific, educational, culture and intellectual center of the Middle Volga region. It has 15 higher educational institutions, 101 schools of general education, 31 specialized secondary schools, 31 technical schools and SPTU, several scientific-research institutes. Public health system of the city includes 31 patient care institutions.
Number of city population is presented by 150 large industrial enterprises. In Ulyanovsk are developed machine-building, aircraft building, instrument-making industry, machine-tool construction, production of building materials and constructions, work enterprises of light, food, processing industry. The city has cargo and passenger ports, two airports, and presents itself a large traffic center.
In Ulyanovsk work two theatres, the Philharmonic Society, the State symphonic orchestra, 7 museums, a circus, 7 movie theaters, and 43 public libraries.
Lives of many outstanding people are connected with Simbirsk - Ulyanovsk: historiograph N.M. Karamzin, writers I.A. Goncharov, D.V. Grigorovich, Skitalets (P.S. Petrov), A. Korinfsky, poets N.M. Yazykov, D.D. Minaev, N. Sadovnikov, D. Oznobishin, D. Davydov, painters A.A. Plastov, D.I. Archangelsky, composers A.A. Varlamov, O.S. Stankevich, enlighteners I.N. Ulyanovs and I.Y. Yakovlev, Decembrists A.I. Turgenev, V.P. Ivashev, architects F.O. Livchak, A.A. Shode, F.E. Volsov, biologist A.A. Liubischev, botanist V. Blagoveschensky, zoologist S.A. Buturlin, band-master E.A. Serov.